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According to author Filipa Antunes, this revealed the conundrum of a film which "could not be recommended for all children but also could not be repudiated for all children uniformly," leading to speculation that the rating system’s scope, in particular its PG classification, "no longer matched a notion of childhood most parents in America could agree on." The "PG-13" rating was introduced on July 1, 1984, with the advisory "Parents Are Strongly Cautioned to Give Special Guidance for Attendance of Children Under 13 – Some Material May Be Inappropriate for Young Children".The first film to be released with this rating was the 1984 John Milius war film Red Dawn.Two other films were rated X by the time the MPAA published their first weekly bulletin listing ratings, Paramount's Sin With a Stranger and Universal's Birds in Peru. This content classification system originally was to have three ratings, with the intention of allowing parents to take their children to any film they chose.However, the National Association of Theater Owners urged the creation of an adults-only category, fearful of possible legal problems in local jurisdictions.To accommodate "the irresistible force of creators determined to make 'their films', and to avoid "the possible intrusion of government into the movie arena", he developed a set of advisory ratings which could be applied after a film was completed.On November 1, 1968, the voluntary MPAA film rating system took effect, with three organizations serving as its monitoring and guiding groups: the MPAA, the National Association of Theater Owners (NATO), and the International Film Importers & Distributors of America (IFIDA).If a film has not yet been assigned a final rating, the label This Film Is Not Yet Rated is used in trailers and television commercials.Since 1989, Tennessee state law has set the minimum age to theatrically view an R-rated film without adult accompaniment at 18, instead of 17.
Uncut/extended versions of films that are labeled "Unrated" also contain warnings saying that the uncut version of the film contains content that differs from the theatrical release and might not be suitable for minors.
Non-members of MPAA may also submit films for rating.
Other media, such as television programs, music and video games, are rated by other entities such as the TV Parental Guidelines, the RIAA and the ESRB.
The "X" rating was not an MPAA trademark and would not receive the MPAA seal; any producer not submitting a film for MPAA rating could self-apply the "X" rating (or any other symbol or description that was not an MPAA trademark).
In the early 1980s complaints about violence and gore in films such as Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Gremlins, both of which received PG ratings, refocused attention on films seen by small children and pre-teens.